Bees recognize mainly 2 (visible for humans) colors: yellow and blue. They can also see near UV. Bees also perfectly distinguish white and black.
But graph of hue sensitivity of their eyes shows 3 peaks: for yellow, green and blue - so we painted hives using various shades of these colors. With white semicircle pointing them "door".
Anyway, hive color is not deciding . Bees have excellent spacial orientation - something like personal GPS - which allows them to imprint in memory exact position of their "home". The accuracy is +/- 0.5m in left/right direction and +/- 1 m front/rear direction. They also notice rotation of hive position as tiny, as 1 deg.
Surely, they remember neighbourhood: trees, bushes, etc.
Apart from that each family has its own smell.
So any bee uses 3 different skills to find out her own home: remembering position, scent and recognizing color.